SEC Intensifies Crypto Oversight: Record Enforcement Actions in 2023

SEC Enforcement

Gensler Crackdown

Crypto Regulation

Written by

Grant Matik

Published on

Mar 02, 2024

In a year marked by heightened regulatory scrutiny, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the leadership of Chair Gary Gensler has set a new precedent for crypto enforcement. A recent report by Cornerstone Research reveals that the SEC initiated a record-breaking 46 enforcement actions against cryptocurrency firms in 2023, signaling a robust regulatory stance on the burgeoning digital asset space.

The SEC's Aggressive Stance

The 2023 enforcement actions represent a significant uptick from previous years, with a 53% increase over the 30 cases brought in 2022 and nearly double the number from 2021. This surge in regulatory activity underscores the SEC's commitment to policing the crypto market, which has been a "top priority" for the commission since Gensler's Senate confirmation in 2021.

Monetary Penalties and Legal Proceedings

The SEC's enforcement actions have not only grown in number but also in financial impact. In 2023, the commission imposed $281 million in monetary penalties through settlements, a substantial increase from the previous year. The SEC has also expanded its use of administrative proceedings, tripling the number from 2022.

High-Profile Cases and Ongoing Litigation

The SEC's crackdown has targeted a range of entities within the crypto industry, including major exchanges like Binance, Coinbase, Terraform Labs, Ripple, and Kraken. Notably, the commission has pursued cases related to nonfungible tokens (NFTs) and initial coin offerings (ICOs), reflecting its broad interpretation of what constitutes a security under U.S. law.

Criticism and Controversy

Chair Gensler's approach, often described as "regulation by enforcement," has faced criticism from within the crypto community. Industry participants argue that the SEC's actions lack a clear regulatory framework, leaving firms to navigate an uncertain legal landscape. Despite this, the SEC has made some concessions, such as the approval of spot Bitcoin exchange-traded funds (ETFs) in early January 2023.

The Ripple Effect of 2022's Crypto Turmoil

The SEC's aggressive enforcement in 2023 can be partly attributed to the aftermath of the tumultuous events of 2022, which saw the collapse of several high-profile crypto firms, including FTX, BlockFi, and Three Arrows Capital. These incidents have had lasting implications, prompting the SEC to take a firmer hand in regulating the industry.

Legal Definitions and the Future of Crypto Regulation

A significant portion of the SEC's allegations involve accusations of fraud and the offering of unregistered securities, with many cases still pending resolution. The legal categorization of crypto assets remains a contentious issue, as seen in the ongoing litigation against Coinbase and Binance. The outcomes of these cases could set important precedents for how digital assets are regulated in the United States.


The SEC's record number of enforcement actions in 2023 reflects a clear message to the crypto industry: compliance with securities laws is non-negotiable. As the regulatory landscape continues to evolve, crypto firms must navigate the challenges of operating within a framework that is still taking shape. With billions in penalties already levied and high-stakes cases in progress, the SEC's role in shaping the future of cryptocurrency regulation cannot be understated.